Seiler Introduction Sometime in the very-near future, your child may pick up his textbook to read about the famous scientist Galileo and his confrontation with the Church, and he may read: The reason Galileo came into conflict with the Church was because of his arrogance and his bad luck, not because of any supposed conflict between science and religion. Science and religion cannot conflict, and they are both valid sources of knowledge.
Conflict thesis For a socio-historical theory with a similar name, see Conflict theory. The "conflict thesis" is a historiographical approach in the history of science which maintains that there is an intrinsic intellectual conflict between religion and science and that the relationship between religion and science inevitably leads to public hostility.
The thesis retains support among some scientists and in the public,  while most historians of science do not support the original strict form of the thesis. Draper had been the speaker in the British Association meeting of which led to the famous confrontation between Bishop Wilberforce and Huxley over Darwinismand in America "the religious controversy over biological evolution reached its most critical stages in the late s".
The history of Science is not a mere record of isolated discoveries; it is a narrative of the conflict of two contending powers, the expansive force of the human intellect on one side, and the compression arising from traditionary faith and human interests on the other.
In all modern history, interference with science in the supposed interest of religion, no matter how conscientious such interference may have been, has resulted in the direst evils both to religion and to science—and invariably.
And, on the other hand, all untrammeled scientific investigation, no matter how dangerous to religion some of its stages may have seemed, for the time, to be, has invariably resulted in the highest good of religion and of science.
In the introduction, White emphasized that he arrived at his position after the difficulties of assisting Ezra Cornell in establishing a university without any official religious affiliation.
James Joseph WalshM. Most of it is quite imaginary. Much of it is due to the exaggeration of the significance of the Galileo incident. Only those who know nothing about the history of medicine and of science continue to harbor it. White's book, contradicted as it is so directly by all serious histories of medicine and of science, should have been read by so many thousands in this country, and should have been taken seriously by educated men, physicians, teachers, and even professors of science who want to know the history of their own sciences, only shows how easily even supposedly educated men may be led to follow their prejudices rather than their mental faculties, and emphasizes the fact that the tradition that there is no good that can possibly come out of the Nazareth of the times before the reformation, still dominates the intellects of many educated people who think that they are far from prejudice and have minds perfectly open to conviction.
Despite the growing number of scholarly modifications and rejections of the conflict model from the 's Whatever the reason for the continued survival of the conflict thesis, two other books on the nineteenth century that were published in the s hastened its final demise among historians of science Between Science and Religion Even more decisive was the penetrating critique "Historians and Historiography" Both tell a tale of bright progress continually sparked by science.
And both develop and use the same myths to support their narrative, the flat-earth legend prominently among them". Russellthe former President of Christians in Sciencesaid that "Draper takes such liberty with history, perpetuating legends as fact that he is rightly avoided today in serious historical study.
The same is nearly as true of White, though his prominent apparatus of prolific footnotes may create a misleading impression of meticulous scholarship". While some historians had always regarded the Draper-White thesis as oversimplifying and distorting a complex relationship, in the late twentieth century it underwent a more systematic reevaluation.
The result is the growing recognition among historians of science that the relationship of religion and science has been much more positive than is sometimes thought.
Although popular images of controversy continue to exemplify the supposed hostility of Christianity to new scientific theories, studies have shown that Christianity has often nurtured and encouraged scientific endeavour, while at other times the two have co-existed without either tension or attempts at harmonization.
If Galileo and the Scopes trial come to mind as examples of conflict, they were the exceptions rather than the rule. Goldsteinand Crosbie Smith propose that scientific discoveries - such as Kepler's laws of planetary motion in the 17th century, and the reformulation of physics in terms of energyin the 19th century - were driven by religion.
Galileo affair The Galileo affair is one of the few examples commonly used by advocates of the conflict thesis. Maurice Finocchiaro writes that the Galileo affair epitomizes the common view of "the conflict between enlightened science and obscurantist religion," and that this view promotes "the myth that alleges the incompatibility between science and religion.
With these observations he promoted the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus published in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in Galileo's initial discoveries were met with opposition within the Catholic Church, and in the Inquisition declared heliocentrism to be formally heretical. Heliocentric books were banned and Galileo was ordered to refrain from holding, teaching or defending heliocentric ideas.
Urban may have rather viewed Heliocentrism as a potentially dangerous or rash doctrine that nevertheless had utility in astronomical calculations. Pope Urban VIII had asked that his own views on the matter be included in Galileo's book, and were voiced by a character named Simplicio who was a simpleton.
Galileo's Dialogue was banned, the publication of his past or future works forbidden, he was ordered to "abjure, curse and detest" heliocentric ideas.
Science will win because it works. In the study, the strength of religiosity in the home in which a scientist was raised, current religious attendance, peers' attitudes toward religion, all had an impact on whether or not scientists saw religion and science as in conflict. Scientists who had grown up with a religion and retained that identity or had identified as spiritual or had religious attendance tended to perceive less or no conflict.
However, those not attending religious services were more likely to adopt a conflict paradigm. Additionally, scientists were more likely to reject conflict thesis if their peers held positive views of religion.
Lindberg and Numbers point out that "there was scarcely a Christian scholar of the Middle Ages who did not acknowledge Earth's sphericity and even know its approximate circumference".
Lindberg and Numbers, however, see this apologetical writing as lacking in careful historical study and overstating the case for a connection. Another finding in the study was that it is more likely for students to move from a conflict perspective to an independence or collaboration perspective than vice versa.In this short film, historians of science Lawrence Principe (Johns Hopkins University) and Ted Davis (Messiah College) introduce a little-known story from American history that provides context for the common notion that science and religion are incompatible.
Also denominated as the Draper–White Thesis, the Warfare Thesis, and the Warfare Model, the conflict thesis interprets the relationship between religion and science as inevitably leading to public hostility, when religion aggressively challenges against new scientific ideas — as in the Galileo Affair (–15).
The epistemological conflict thesis is of greater normative import than the historical conflict thesis and holds that the respective epistemologies of science and religion make them incompatible and we need more specifics as to what White (and Draper) argued for in their books.
I own White's, and in it he methodically addresses origins of. The "conflict thesis" is a historiographical approach in the history of science which maintains that there is an intrinsic intellectual conflict between religion and science and that the relationship between religion and science inevitably leads to public hostility.
Draper and White were without a doubt the most influential champions of the conflict thesis in history, and their names continue to be mentioned whenever the conflict thesis is discussed.
Ironically both of them claimed to be religious and denied that they were attacking religion as such.
Nevertheless, the most common approach „had assumed the existence of an enduring and probably necessary conflict ‟ (Turner, , p. ), and is outlined in the most explicit way by Draper () and White ().